|New Testament written before the Fall of Jerusalem in 70 A.D., & before the fire of Rome, because these events and the martyrdoms of James (62 A.D.), Paul (64 A.D.) & Peter (65 A.D.), all pivotal Christian events, are not mentioned.
New Testament manuscripts
(KE=Kurios=Lord) oldest of 98 Papyrus
=15,000 translations: Latin, Syriac, Coptic Armenian, Gothic, Nubian, Georgian, Ethiopic
=2,135 Lectionaries from 6th century
=32,000 quotes from Early Church Fathers’ letters; all N. Test. except for 11 verses (-325A.D.)
|Uthmanic recension. not Topkapi / Sammarkand
Noldeke, Hawting, Schacht, Lings, Safadi all date Topkapi / Sammarkand to 9th century.
Quraish = Mecca, Kufa = 636 A.D. = Persia.
Ma’il Qur’an in British Library, Lings=790 A.D.
Conclusion: no Uthmanic recension, Qur’an= 1,200 years old, 150 year gap!!!
|Moses didn’t write?, yet Black Stele found = laws of Hammurabi 300 yrs. before Moses.
Daniel not 2nd but 6th BC, East India. Inscription=Dan.4:30=Nebuchadnezzar building.
Dead Sea Scrolls 100 BC = Massoretic MS=916 A.D.
Armana tablets (Egypt) Habiru=Hebrew, first given to Abraham (Gen.14:13)
Ebla tablets (Syria) 17,000=Tell Mardikh 2300 BC=Deuteronomy law code, Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, Zoar=Gen. 14:8
Mari tablets (Euphrates) Arriyuk=Arioch=Gen.14 Nahor, Harran=Gen.24:10, Benjamin
Nuzi tablets (Iraq) speaks of 6 Patriarchal customs
|Jews split with Muh. 624 A.D. (S.2:144-150) – Doctrina Iacobi, 642A.D. Jews/Saracens allied.
Armenian Chronicler 660 A.D.= Jews & Ishmaelites together up to 640 A.D.
Mecca (S.3:96)=1st sanctuary, Adam=Kaaba 1st city, Abraham/Ishmael, Trade – no ancient reference till 724A.D. (“Makoraba” 1st?)
Sources Periplus (50A.D.), Pliny (79A.D.) vs. Cosmas, Procopius, Theodoretus
no overland trade post – 1st cent=maritime=Red Sea
no trade post-3rd cent, then Ethiopians (Adulis)
Mecca a valley, no water, unlike Taif 50 miles away
cheaper 1,250 miles by ship than 50 miles by camel
|Abraham on Babylonian inscription
Field of Abram in Hebron = 918 BC by Shishak of Egypt, on walls of Karnak temple
Doors of Sodom 2200-1600 BC = heavy = Gen.19:9, 900-600BC = arch/curtains (security)
Beni Hasan Tomb Asiatics went to Egypt/famine
Joseph’s price (20 shekels) Gen.37:28=1,700 BC, earlier cheaper, later more
Joseph’s Tomb Josh.24:32 = in Shechem found mummy with Egyptian sword!
Jericho’s walls fell outwards = Joshua 6:20
David’s Water shafts found (II Sam.5:6-8; I Chron.11:6)
|Qibla (S.2:144-150) Jeru -> Mecca 624A.D.
Wasit, Baghdad & Kufa = West, Al As = East
Syrian Caliphal Palaces = Jerusalem
Jacob of Edessa 705 A.D. to Jerusalem
Dome of the Rock: by Abd al-Malik 691A.D., Mi’raj?
Inscriptions polemical & not = Qur’an!
Variant verbal forms, & extensive deviances
No Qibla, octagonal thus 1st sanctuary?
Nevo’s Inscriptions Arabic, religious after 661A.D., no Muh. formula until 690A.D.
then Tawhid, Muhammad rasul Allah, Jesus=man
on Protocols suddenly & only, until 724A.D.
Note: Compared to the Biblical archaeological evidence, there is no archaeological evidence for Adam, Abraham, or Ishmael in Arabia!
|Erastus = Corinth treasurer (Rom. 16:23), pavement found in 1929 with this name.
Meris = Philippia “district” of Macedonia doubted until inscriptions use it for district.
Politarchs = civil authority of Thessalonica (Acts 17:6) 19 inscriptions use it, 5 in Thesselonica
Praetor = Philippian ruler instead of Duumuir, Romans used Praetor earlier.
Proconsul = title for Gallio (Acts 18:12) – corroborated by Delphi Inscription (52 A.D.) Gallio held this position for 1yr.
Quirinius = governor of Syria at Jesus’ birth = an inscription from Antioch.